Studies and reports


Assessing the Missed Benefits of Countries National Contributions

Assessing the missed Benefits of Countries´ National Contributions Report

This report elaborated by New Climate Institute with support from Climate Action Network (CAN) and the Global Call for Climate Action (GCCA), investigates the co-benefits associated with countries’ Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs). It first provides an overview of the general co-benefits that climate action may have and how they could be used to incentivise further ambitious greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions, and then provides illustrative results for the cobenefits achieved by the INDCs of the U.S., China, the EU, Canada, Japan, India, South Africa and Chile, as well as an indication of the forgone or missed benefits that could have been achieved through action that leads to 100% renewable energy in 2050. Read more and download the report here.

COP21 Dialogue Report

COP21 100% RE Cities Dialogue Report

During the COP21 in Paris, three organizations (Renewable Cities, ICLEI – Local Governments for Sustainability, and the World Future Council) brought together a diverse group of local governments for a peer-to-peer dialogue on how cities and local governments around the world are making plans for ambitious transitions towards renewable energy. This report outlines the results and main conclusions of the workshop. Read more and download the report here.

Kassel International Dialogue Report

This report outlines how local governments are driving the transition to 100% RE and provides insights on how to conceptualize this vision. It summarizes the outcome of the Kassel International Dialogue which was hosted by deENet, Renewable Cities, World Future Council and the German Federal Environment Agency and brought together 40 local government representatives and practitioners from 10 countries. Read more and download the report here.


Are You In? 100% Renewables, Zero Poverty

Ahead of the UN Climate Summit, a group of NGOs is asking governments, “are you in?” – as part of a new report and video which highlight the development benefits of the transition to 100% renewable energy. This comes as Heads of State travel to Paris and thousands of people prepare to take to the streets in more than 150 countries to call for a fossil free future. Read more and download the report here.


How to achieve 100% Renewable Energy

This policy handbook features various case studies from across the world, analyzes their policy frameworks and approaches towards 100% RE and draws recommendations on how to achieve 100% RE. The case study analysis proves again that achieving 100% RE is only a matter of political will. Read more and download the study here.


Criteria for a Sustainable Transformation towards ‘100% Renewable Energy’: Starting an International Dialogue

This discussion paper initiate a dialogue on how a transition to 100% RE can be a tool for sustainable development by ensuring wealth redistribution, creation of social wellbeing and protection of ecosystems. Further, proposes a framework able to guide policy makers in developing roadmaps to achieve 100% RE in local governments. For this purpose, this paper outlines some building blocks to create the first global 100% RE label for local governments which will offer a first standardized framework to measure and assess progress in this field. Read more about it and download the report.

The Energy Report, 100% Renewable Energy by 2050
The Energy Report presents a provocative scenario, set in 2050, of a world run entirely on renewable energy. Read more about it and download the report.


100% renewable electricity: A roadmap to 2050 for Europe and North Africa

The opportunity exists to harness all forms of renewable power at scale across Europe if this is supported by a single European power market united with a similar market in North Africa. This is the result of a report by PWC examining the potential for powering Europe and North Africa with renewable electricity exclusively by 2050. Read more and download the study here.

Stanford University

A Plan to Power 100% of the Planet With Renewables

Wind, water and solar technologies can provide 100 percent of the world’s energy, eliminating all fossil fuels. Here’s how…
By Mark Z. Jacobson and Mark A. Delucchi


Scenario Study for the World: “Renewable Energy Outlook 2030”

Global Energy Scenario up to 2030 showing that renewables can contribute much more than the figure drawn in the latest scenarios in the IEA’s “World Energy Outlook 2006”.
Report to the Energy Watch Group, download here.


Applied Energy: Zero carbon energy system of South East Europe 2050

This paper presents the transition steps to a 100% renewable energy system in South East Europe which need to be carried out until the year 2050 in order to achieve zero carbon energy society. It is a composite work from several participants from different universities in Denmark, Croatia and Macedonia.  You can read the entire report here.


Vers des Villes: 100 % énergies renouvelables et maîtrisant leur consommation

This report provides guidance and suggests solutions for French towns and cities that want to move towards 100% renewable energy. It shares experiences and insights from 100% RE pioneers from around the world and outlines five key recommendations. Download the full report here (only available in French).


From Vision to Action: A Workshop Report on 100% RE in European Regions

This report  provides an in-depth policy analysis of renewable energy frontrunner countries and identifies successful policy elements and instruments. It builds on a parliamentary hearing that the World Future Council hosted together with Climate Service Center in the Nordic Folkecenter last October and outlines solutions as well as implementation strategies for a fossil free society. The overall goal of this publication is to educate and inspire a broader range of stakeholders who must engage, if we are to advance the goal of 100% RE in European Regions. Download the full report here.

Best Practices deENet

100ee-Regions in Germany, Europe and the World

The report “100ee-regions in Germany, Europe and the World” presents regions that have set a target to switch their energy supply to renewable energies. In Germany and in other countries more and more regions , municipalities and cities pursue the goal of 100% renewable energies. This new Good Practice booklet of projects “100ee-regions” and “100% RES Communities” presents selected regions and actions. The report is designed to raise the curiosity, show lighthouses projects, but also to highlight that this movement is growing around the globe.Download the full report here.


Distribution System Study Rhineland-Palatinate

The German state government of Rhineland-Palatinate aims to cover the state’s electricity demand completely with renewables by 2030. In a study, commissioned by the Ministry for Economic Affairs, Climate Protection, Energy and Regional Planning of the German State Rhineland-Palatinate, the impact of the 100% renewable energy strategy on the power system was studied by Energynautics, the Oeko-Institut e.V. and the law firm Bird & Bird LLP. Download the full report here.


RE-thinking 2050

Europe must prepare the ground for a 100% renewable energy future, starting today. RE-thinking 2050 outlines a pathway towards a 100% renewable energy supply system by 2050 and clearly shows that it is not a matter of technology, but rather a matter of making the right choices today to influence tomorrow. Download the full report here.


EU Energy [R]evolution – Towards a fully renewable energy supply in the EU27

The energy debate has moved to the top of the agenda across the social, political and economic spectrum. Energy is the lifeblood of the economy, but Europe’s current energy model fails to guarantee a secure, sustainable and affordable supply into the future. Insecure and expensive fuel supplies, persistent safety risks and the urgent threat of climate change call for an Energy [R]evolution. Download the full scenario report here. For a comparison of EU Energy Roadmaps, please click here


On the road to 100% renewable energy in Belgium by 2050

Can Belgium become fully reliant on renewable energy by 2050? A study conducted by VITO, the Federal Planning Bureau, and consultancy firm ICEDD, shows that while the goal is extremely ambitious, it nevertheless is possible. Download the full report here.

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Mix-Électrique 100% Renouvelable à 2050 – Évaluation Macro-Économique 

La transition énergétique peut-elle aussi contribuer positivement à l’économie ? Oui, sans aucun doute, estime l’Ademe dans une nouvelle étude publiée fin juin. L’organisme analyse les impacts macro-économiques de la transition énergétique à partir de trois scénarios relativement ambitieux en termes de pénétration des énergies renouvelables (EnR) et de baisse de la consommation finale d’électricité. Read more and download the report here.

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The Role of Bioenergy in European Cities

This study explains the contributions bioenergy can offer to reduce the use of fossil fuels in cities. Bioenergy is a proven option to replace fossil fuels in the heat supply and partly in the transport sector and generation of electricity. Seven European cities are mentioned in this study that demonstrate how bioenergy is integrated into the urban energy system. Read more and download the report here.

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Malmö’s aim for 100% renewables (Sweden)

In conjunction with the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), ICLEI World Secretariat is compiling case studies on topics related to renewable energy in cities. One of the themes is ambitious target settings by municipalities, with goals for 100% renewables, and particularly how the municipality is going about this in its master plan or other policies. Read the full report here.


Cities are ready for 100 % Clean Energy – 10 Case Studies

This report contains 10 case studies from US-american cities which have set a 100%-RE target. Including, among others, San Francisco, Aspen (Colorado) and San Diego, the report shows the different aspects of each study according the initiatives, the targets and how they want to achieve their goals. You can find the entire report here.

Vancouver Renewable City Strategy 2015

This report presents the goal of Vancouver of getting 100% of its energy from renewable sources before 2050 and of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by at least 80% below 2007 levels before 2050. Read more and download the report here.

Solutions from Canadian Scholars

The report, published by 70 Canadian academics, looked at Canada’s potential to shift its electricity production to renewable sources and cut its emissions. It found that the country could get 100% of its electricity from low-carbon sources like wind, solar, and hydropower by 2035 and reduce its greenhouse gas emissions by 80% by 2050. To achieve these goals, the report recommended that the federal government implement a nationwide price on carbon and eliminate subsidies to Canada’s fossil fuel industry – particularly, its tar sands industry.


Long Island Clean Electricity Vision

The study “A Long Island Clean Electricity Vision – Supplying 100% of Long Island’s Electricity Needs from Renewable Power” shows that by the end this decade, we could meet 100% of residential electricity needs from clean, renewable power sources. By 2030, all of Long Island’s electricity could be carbon emission free, and 100% from renewable sources. (see the Study Summary and more information here).


Greensburg: The Sustainable Comprehensive Master Plan

This document is a guide for the many projects underway in Greensburg, including the transition to 100% Renewable Energy. If followed it will help the community become a socially, economically, and environmentally sustainable city. It is a document that emerged directly from the community and is representative of both the planning team’s recommendations, the City’s operational requirements and input from many stakeholder groups. Download the report here and learn more about Greensburg`s story. Or watch the video with the inspiring Mayor Bob Dixson here.

Complementarity of hydro, wind and solar power as a base for a 100% RE energy supply: South America as an example

This study illustrates that renewable energy technology is cost competitive and sufficient to supply the full energy demand in South America, which is one of the most emerging regions in the world. The simulations and analyses suggest to invest in grids, energy storage and the trade system to enable the area-wide energy transactions based on hydro, wind and solar power.
Read more about the study and download the full text here. 

Israel study

Towards a Zero Carbon Israel 2040

Can Israel minimize its energy sector’s carbon footprint and reduce environmental pollution? Can renewable sources provide sufficient energy? The goal of this study is to provide in depth answers to these questions, and to present an achievable vision for the country’s future energy sector. Read more and download the study here in English and Hebrew.


100% Renewable Energy by 2050 for India

The study examines the possibility of a near 100% Renewable Energy Scenario (REN) for India by the middle of the century against a reference scenario in which the economy is likely to be dependent primarily on fossil fuels – coal, oil and gas. 100% Renewable Energy by 2050 for India is a sequel report to 100% Renewable Energy by 2050 released by WWF International in 2011 that researched the technical potential and long term economic viability of a renewable-energy-based future at the global level. Read more and download the study here.


Philippines Plans To Reach 100% Renewable Energy Within 10 Years

The Philippines, which has a population of almost 95 million, has just laid the groundwork for a comprehensive clean energy plan that will get the country on track to 100% renewable energy within the next decade. The groundwork was laid for a Sustainable Energy Roadmap that will help the Philippines achieve this goal. Read the full report here.

WWF Report

Power Sector Vision 2050. Toward 100% Renewable Energy by 2050 – Greater Mekong: Power  Vision Overview

The study carried out by the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) reveals that Thailand and the countries in the Mekong region are able to achieve 100% renewable energy supply by 2050, a crucial step to curb the extent and severe impacts of climate change in the region. The WWF worked with Intelligent Energy Systems (IES) and partners across the region to develop the most ambitious and detailed analysis of the Greater Mekong’s power sector vision to date. The reports are broken into two parts. Read more about Part 1, providing an overview of the power sector vision for each country and the region as a whole. For a  deeper look at the technical details download Part 2. The executive summary can be found here.


100% Renewable Energy: Boosting Development in Morocco

This report provides an analysis on the current situation of the energy sector of Morocco and derives policy recommendations for a just transition towards a 100% Renewable Energy. It highlights that phasing out fossil resources and transforming the country`s energy system toward 100% renewable sources, does not only benefit the climate but also the economy and Morocco`s people.

Download in English or French.

Sydney: The blueprint for the 100% renewable energy city

The renewable energy master plan outlines how 100% of the City’s electricity, heating and cooling can come from renewable energy sources, such as solar, wind and energy from waste, by 2030. Based on worldwide renewable energy best practice, the master plan focuses on the mix of renewable energy resources and most effective technologies. Read more about Sydney`s pathway towards 100% and download the master plan here.

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Beyond Baseload: 100% Renewable Energy in Australia

“The sun doesn’t always shine, and the wind doesn’t always blow” – that’s a common refrain. So, how can Australia be powered on 100% renewables with the same levels of reliability that we enjoy today? A lot of the solution lies not in the technology, but in changing our mindset about ‘baseload’ power. Read more and download the report here.




100% Australian Renewable

Modelling for what a 100% renewable national electricity grid for Australia would look like: this study commissioned by the Australian Federal Government considers two scenarios with differing views about how quickly renewable technologies will develop over time.  Download the full report here.

 Critical Material Report

Critical materials for the transition to a 100% sustainable, renewable energy future

The report “Critical Materials for the transition to a 100% sustainable energy future” by WWF and Ecofys examines whether non-energy raw material supply bottlenecks could occur in the transition to a fully sustainable energy system. Energy conservation and energy efficiency as well as substantive enhancement of recycling and reuse of key materials are the bedrock conditions required to ensure the world has abundant supply of these minerals. Read more and download the report here.

 RE in Remote Islands

Renewable Energies for Remote Areas and Islands

Remote areas around the world are at the forefront of the transition towards a more sustainable energy future. IEA-RETD has commissioned a study with the overall objective to provide policy perspectives for making remote areas and islands largely independent from fossil fuel imports or costly transmission infrastructures. Read more and download the report here.

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100% Renewable Energy–and Beyond–For Cities

What does ‘100 percent renewable’ really mean, and what does ‘and beyond’ signify? ‘100 percent renewable’ means zero fossil or nuclear fuel content in operational or embodied energy, in stationary use or in transport. ‘And beyond’ means improvements in the efficiency of urban energy use. It also means building the capacity of smaller, rural communities to supply excess renewable energy to large cities and other parts of the economy. ‘Beyond’ also refers to finding ways of enhancing the capacity of soils, forests, wetlands and water bodies to absorb greenhouse gases from the atmosphere. And above all else, ‘beyond’ means assuring that the renewable energy transition will directly contribute to poverty reduction, job creation, health improvement, education and social empowerment for disadvantaged people.This important document sketches out the options and the processes that have started to transform urban energy systems and that will power our cities in the very near future. Download the report here.